Upon getting information about an upcoming school science fair and the need to consider a topic of interest, many students will typically have no idea where to get started. While the science fair is typically a common occurrence in any school at any grade level, there are different types of topics that should be taken a look at depending on the age of the student. After first taking a look at the many different categories of science projects, you will be able to locate a suitable choice of topic to take to the next level.There is a wide variety of categories that fall under the types of science projects that can be chosen for a school science fair. These include biology, chemistry, physics, microbiology, biochemistry, medicine, environmental, mathematics, engineering, and earth science. While you may not have yet learned very much in any of these categories, don’t be afraid to see what each one entails. Taking a good look at your interests will allow you to focus on the right direction to take.Many resources are also available for those who are unsure as to the topic they are wanting to use to create their science projects. If you take a look at the topics that fall under the biology category, you will likely notice that there are topics that deal with plants, animals, and humans. For those who are in 2nd grade or 3rd grade, an interesting topic may be to determine if ants are picky over what type of food they eat. While this topic might not be of interest to an 8th grader, it is certainly something in the biology category that an elementary school student would enjoy.Along with the biology category, a high school student may want to take a look at diffusion and osmosis in animal cells as this would be a more appropriate topic for the grade level. A student in 6th grade would be more advanced than an elementary school student, but not as advanced as a high school student. At this middle school grade level, a topic of how pH levels effect the lifespan of a tadpole may be of interest.Whichever resource is used to locate a topic for science projects, it is always a good idea to consider the grade level of the student prior to making a selection. It is always assumed to be best to have a project at an appropriate level in order to keep the attention of the student and provide a fun and enjoyable learning experience.
Future News for Present DecisionsNews in the traditional sense does not usually affect the day-to-day decisions of people. The weather forecast may lead you to bring a coat or umbrella to work, but it would rarely cause you to feel that you need to switch careers or make life-changing decisions. However, in the world of stocks, futures, and Forex trading, there is a type of news that can alter the fate (and profit) of trillions of dollars. If you are into investing, future news is something you should monitor consistently.If you practice a passive approach to current events, weather forecasts, and showbiz news, it’s a totally different thing if you are involved in investments and get regularly updated with future news. If you do not wish to lose money by making poor investment decisions, you have to subscribe to a service that can deliver fresh future news and other updates that can help determine if you’re putting your money on the right investment tracks. Getting future news subscriptions has its advantages. You get to:1. Familiarize yourself with patterns in Forex, futures, and stocks that may prove useful in making investment decisions
2. Be alerted for unfavorable trend patterns that can help you avoid investing at the wrong places
3. Establish a personal record of the “goings on” in the market that you can use for reference, and;
4. Gain information from trusted knowledge sources that are unlikely to report errors and, in turn, cause you to make ill-advised decisions.There are many ways of getting future news on a regular basis. Executives and professional traders subscribe to trusted services that can deliver updates on a regular basis. Others prefer to hire a professional who will personally collect data and report what he/she has learned at the end of a trading day. Others rely on buying spreads of newspaper to check out the figures and learn a few finance-related headlines that might concern them.Whatever your method of getting future news is, always remember that individuals who do not want to lose in investment deals should gather accurate information that he/she can use to make wise investment decisions. If you are not a professional and need help in interpreting stocks, futures and Forex trading facts, perhaps subscribing to an informational future news service is what is best for you. Thousands of people gain a considerable part of their income from stocks, futures, and Forex trading, so don’t let yourself be at the losing end because you don’t know enough about what you are trying to invest in.
There are really as many type of travellers as there are people. Here we take a tongue in cheek look at some of the common types.1. The Complete Budget TravelerThe complete budget traveler travels on a strict budget and does not vary from it, no matter how exciting the recently discovered opportunity is. No extra drinks for this traveller unless someone buys him/her one.2. The Perennial Party AnimalThe perennial party animal has one focus and that is to have fun usually at a bar. These travellers find places to party where others cannot. Perhaps they should be partnered with the complete budget traveler!3. The Flexible Go-anywhere TravelerThe flexible go-anywhere traveler just chills out where-ever he/she is. There is no need for planning – everything is good. They go with the flow and to not need to know where they are going. Perhaps the traveller that enjoys any experience.4. The Methodical PlannerThe methodical planner does not do anything that is not pre-arranged. Every second is planned and when things go wrong as they inevitably do, they feel unloved. They will always be found where ever the plan tells them to be.5. The Modern TechieThe modern techie can only travel if he/she has the latest travel accessories and gadgets. Stay close to the modern techie to learn what items works and what items are a waste of money for your next trip.6. The Avid Souvenir BuyerThe avid souvenir buyer has money to spend and anything that he/she wants to remind them of the holiday. The head for the markets and shops and not interested in spending any time with the perennial party animal. Usually has trouble with baggage weight limits on the homeward journey.7. The Know it All TravelerThe know it all traveler studies everything from the guidebooks and internet prior to travel. He/she finds great joy in asking the most in-depth questions of the guides or continually interrupts the guide with statements of “fact”. Not sure who the know it all traveller should travel with.8. The Fancy PhotographerThe fancy photography will probably have the most expensive camera (and don’t forget the lens) and take the longest to take any photograph. Other travellers are always waiting for him/her at any special sight. They also like to get out very early to “catch the light.”9. The Constant ComplainerThe constant complainer finds everything on the tour not to his/her usual standard. Usually claim to be frequent travellers and often want to “talk with a higher authority”. Probably should stay home and enjoy the things that are there!10. The Helpless TravelerThe helpless traveler finds everything a little too much. He/she will ask the most unusual and often useless questions. Often there will be someone on the tour who takes the helpless traveller under their wings to protect them from the others.11. The “I am looking for myself” TravelerThe “I am looking for myself” traveler is searching for something. It is something unique for each or the “I am looking for myself” travellers. Beat to let them find themselves but make sure that they get about safely.12. The Incessant Talking TravelerThe incessant talking traveler does not leave anyone alone. They crave a discussion on almost any topic. Often they are quite interesting people but enough is enough.13. The Travel Light TravelerThe travel light traveler needs only one cabin bag to see the world. They a proud of their achievement but their travelling companions struggle when there is no time for washing clothes. They tend to like to borrow things.14. The Repeating TravelerThe repeating traveler goes to the same place or holiday each year. He/she can provide at least 101 reasons why you should join them. They take pride in telling you that they have seen three management changes at the hotel and the last manager was better than the current one.15. The Exercising TravelerFinally, the exercising traveler rises every morning to a vigorous physical workout. Only stay at hotels with gymnasium and swimming pool. Usually fussy with food and claim to eat “healthy” until the free wine is put on the table.Whatever type of traveler you are or come into contact with – enjoy the experience and learn from them. Even the most tedious travelers will have something interesting to say.
White label SEO is a business agreement between two parties in which an SEO reseller up-sells the SEO services offered by a SEO service provider, by not revealing the identity of the provider. In many cases, the SEO reseller is an Internet marketing (IM) company. Here, there will not be any contact between the SEO provider and the client, only the SEO reseller deals with the client.Many IM companies that provide various IM services to their clients, will buy SEO services from SEO providers and resell those services to their clients, when they do not have sufficient expertise to provide SEO services. As white label SEO is beneficial to both SEO resellers and SEO providers, it is gaining popularity. In this article, let us check how white label SEO benefits both of them.Benefits incurred by SEO resellers• Can expand the scope of services offered to their clients
There are many IM companies offering a wide range of Internet marketing services to their clients. But some of them may not have enough or no expertise at all to offer SEO services. Due to the ever increasing demand for search engine optimization (SEO) to websites, it has become an important service to be offered. Thus, SEO reselling enables the Internet marketing company to expand the scope of the services they offer to the clients.• Can grow their client base
If a company is not in a position to offer SEO services, and there is a huge demand for that service from clients, the company may lose many existing clients and also miss out many opportunities to acquire new clients. By becoming a SEO reseller, companies without the expertise of SEO can capitalize the expertise of SEO providers. They can provide SEO services along with other Internet marketing strategies and thus can grow their client base.• Increased profit without increasing resources
Another important benefit of SEO reselling is, a company can provide the services without recruiting new people as they need not develop these services on their own. This will save the expenditure of recruiting new people and giving salaries to them. Thus, a company can increase its profit without increasing resources.Benefits incurred by SEO providers• Gets business without any business development effort
In the present highly competitive world, it is not easy for a business to acquire new clients and grow their business. A great deal of business development activity is required to acquire new clients, which will cost the company in terms of finance and usage of resources. Whereas through white label SEO, an SEO provider will benefit because the reseller takes care of acquiring clients and doing business with them. Thus, we can say that this is one of the most important benefits that an SEO reseller program will offer to a SEO provider.• Increase in business size
As the company sells its services to new clients through a SEO reseller, it will increase its business size. It can offer its services to its own clients and to the clients of SEO resellers which will help in increasing its business size instantly or within a short time span.• Increased revenue
An increase in business size will automatically lead to an increase in revenue. In the present recession-hit economy, it is not an easy task for a company to increase its revenue. Many companies are facing decline in revenue. Under this situation, SEO reselling program offers an excellent opportunity for SEO providers to increase their revenue without keeping much effort.White label SEO is thus mutually beneficial to the SEO provider and the reseller and offers the benefit of staying anonymous (for the provider) while doing business as usual.
The impact of computer can be seen in every respective field either in business or jobs. The computer has brought several changes in various fields. Now one can communicate with other by internet via mail, chat or webcam. The education has brought revolutionary change in educational fields. The education with the help of internet based training program has open door for online education. The online form of education has helped in reaching education to every niche of world with the help of computer connected with internet connections. The electronic form of education has eradicated illiteracy and work for better in economic growth and improving infrastructure. The online form of education features electronically supported learning and training. The curriculum is simple and comprehensive and education approach is possible through modern devices and latest gadgets. The content of learning is delivered via internet, intranet or extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio.The online educations courses can be delivered by web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classroom opportunities and digital collaboration. The education is supported by electronically supported learning via internet, intranet audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. The material is available in the form of text, image, animation, video and audio. One can attend orientation classes or watch training program conducted by virtual instructor. The advancement in technology has brought rapidly change in education and now one can gain pick comprehensive learning program available in online education colleges according to their conveyance or need. The candidate can acquire desire education of famous university with the help of online form of education. The global form of education has solved out the barriers of education of remote locations. Now they can gain knowledge and attend virtual classes and take help of world class faculty via mail or text chat message or other means of social networking sites.The courses offer multiple options to choose or select. One can do management or complete their engineering degree or diploma by online university. The online education has made possible for getting education of secondary school or higher qualification. One can get job all over the world with the help of online degree courses as it contains value and recognized all across the world. For professionals, online degree offer opportunity for better career options. The employee can improve their job profile or can bring changes in it. They can get promotions with degree of higher qualification. As earning an online education degrees would not bring any barriers in working profile, same time you got degree of higher education while working. So one can feel that such degree give learning while earning. Also it add bonanza in profile as experience keep on persisting with degree educations. The professional can bring improvement in job profile and can gain promotions in designations and increment in salary. As individual growth counts for nation development so country can improve their educational structure and count economic growth.
I am not into technologies, those that change so ever fast, and always. But I do observe technological trends, along which the development of scientific applications revolves.And of all trends, perhaps disruptive technologies are the defining path of industrial implications, a linear passage that technological progress almost invariably follows. Though the concept of “disruptive technologies” is only popularized in 1997 by Harvard Business School Professor Clayton Christensen in his best-seller “The Innovator’s Dilemma”, the phenomenon was already evidenced back in 1663, when Edward Somerset published designs for, and might have installed, a steam engine.As put forth by Clayton Christensen, disruptive technologies are initially low performers of poor profit margins, targeting only a minute sector of the market. However, they often develop faster than industry incumbents and eventually outpace the giants to capture significant market shares as their technologies, cheaper and more efficient, could better meet prevailing consumers’ demands.In this case, the steam engines effectively displaced horse power. The demand for steam engines was not initially high, due to the then unfamiliarity to the invention, and the ease of usage and availability of horses. However, as soon as economic activities intensified, and societies prospered, a niche market for steam engines quickly developed as people wanted modernity and faster transportation.One epitome of modern disruptive technologies is Napster, a free and easy music sharing program that allows users to distribute any piece of recording online. The disruptee here is conventional music producers. Napster relevantly identified the “non-market”, the few who wanted to share their own music recordings for little commercial purpose, and thus provided them with what they most wanted. Napster soon blossomed and even transformed the way the internet was utilized.Nevertheless, there are more concerns in the attempt to define disruptive technologies than simply the definition itself.One most commonly mistaken feature for disruptive technologies is sustaining technologies. While the former brings new technological innovation, the latter refers to “successive incremental improvements to performance” incorporated into existing products of market incumbents. Sustaining technologies could be radical, too; the new improvements could herald the demise of current states of production, like how music editor softwares convenience Napster users in music customization and sharing, thereby trumping over traditional whole-file transfers. The music editors are part of a sustaining technological to Napster, not a new disruptor. Thus, disruptive and sustaining technologies could thrive together, until the next wave of disruption comes.See how music editors are linked to steam engines? Not too close, but each represents one aspect of the twin engines that drive progressive technologies; disruptors breed sustainers, and sustainers feed disruptors.This character of sustaining technologies brings us to another perspective of disruptive technologies: they not only change the way people do business, but also initiate a fresh wave of follow-up technologies that propel the disruptive technology to success. Sometimes, sustaining technologies manage to carve out a niche market for its own even when the disruptive initiator has already shut down. Music editor and maker softwares continue to healthily thrive, despite Napster’s breakdown (though many other file sharing services are functioning by that time), with products like the AV Music Morpher Gold and Sound Forge 8.A disruptive technology is also different from a paradigm shift, which Thomas Kuhn used to describe “the process and result of a change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science”. In disruptive technologies, there are no assumptions, but only the rules of game of which the change is brought about by the behaviors of market incumbents and new entrants. They augment different markets that eventually merge. In Clayton Christensen’s words, newcomers to the industry almost invariably “crush the incumbents”.While researching on disruptive technologies, I came across this one simple line that could adequately capture what these technologies are about, “A technology that no one in business wants but that goes on to be a trillion-dollar industry.” Interesting how a brand new technology that seemingly bears little value could shake up an entire industry, isn’t it?You are probably asking, why then that no one wants it? Or how true is the money claim to these disruptive technologies? And if it is true, what are the implications to the business practice? How do market incumbents and new entrants behave?The scope of this article could only let me take the first question. Well, it is not that dominating companies are not visionary to see a disruption is coming. They can’t. A disruptive technology is inherently not attractive initially; no one could see how Napster could boom and lead to the thriving market of audio softwares like the music editors and mixers, except the disruptors themselves. Even if one manages to foresee it, the “Innovator’s Dilemma” is there to keep them from acting.And as the books show, technology has always evolved in waves of disruption.
IntroductionKnowledge may be considered as an aggregate of knowledge systems. This aggregation includes indigenous or community lay (local or traditional) knowledge systems as well as scientific (formal ways of knowing) knowledge systems. The sum total represents the knowledge assets of a country, which are deemed essential to drive economic growth, competitive advantages, human capital, and quality of life (Malhotra, 2003). Community knowledge systems often provide different types of knowledge classifications based upon the observations, beliefs and experiences of people from a specific environmental location, a need exists to incorporate it into development plans and actions. Incorporating community knowledge sytems into developmental approaches will according to Boven and Morohashi (2002) at least enables local communities to actively participate in the decision-making process of what really works in the daily practices of people living in a specific environment. Active participation by communities contributing localized knowledge gives recognition to the Participatory Action Research approach of synergistic maximization of impact, increased citizen participation and community ownership.Recently, more recognition is given to the fact that indigenous or community lay knowledge has intrinsic merit, and hold development potential especially for rural area development (Crithley, 2000). However, the effective application and utilization of community lay knowledge in technology development and transfer remains largely unclear despite recognition that it represents a rich body of knowledge for technological innovations.PurposeThe purpose of this article is to provide baseline information on how community lay knowledge systems can be applied in technology development and transfer through the process of knowledge creation cooperation, education and innovation in coalition with scientific knowledge systems. Community lay knowledge for the purpose of this article is distinct from scientific knowledge is that community lay knowledge is considered to be more experiential in nature, and includes judgement and common sense which has been acquired with experience. Community lay knowledge is often referred to as practical logic (Craig, 2000).Features of knowledge systemsKnowledge systems in general require firstly process agents that can drive change and development. In this regard Malhotra (2003) identified three process agents namely:· National institutions;
· Frameworks; and
· Infrastructure.The above three agents facilitate the effective use, sharing, creation, and renewal of knowledge required for socio-economic growth. Through knowledge systems, knowledge assets are created that eventually manifested in technologies, competencies and capabilities causing the creation of new services and products. Normally, community lay knowledge systems are severely resource constrained regarding the possession of process agents.Secondly, knowledge systems may differ in methodology and classification. Whereas scientific knowledge systems normally represents a top-down transfer of expert knowledge from research institutions to beneficiaries (Oudwater and Martin, 2003), the filtering of community lay knowledge into the scientific body of knowledge represents a bottom-up knowledge transfer approach. This according to Ansari et al (2002) provides a conducive knowledge base in which external knowledge of scientists combines with community assets leading to balancing of internal versus external diffusion of skills through a community. Community lay knowledge classification of knowledge may also differ from the classification systems used by scientists. A classical example is the different approaches used in soil classification used by farmers versus scientists. For most farmers the principle criterion by which soil is recognized and described is surface texture e.g. sand, clay or loam content. Soil surveyors on the other hand would tend to classify the soil in terms of subsurface properties (Oudwater and Martin, 2003).Thirdly, knowledge systems should as a purpose add value to the lives of communities by continuously facilitating best practice operations. According to Boven and Morohashi (2002) best practices using indigenous knowledge should at least possess the following characteristics:· The practice should be innovative in nature in the sense that it has developed new and creative solutions to common problems experienced by a community;
· The practice has a positive impact on the living conditions, quality of life or environment of the individuals, groups or communities concerned;
· The practice should have a sustainable effect; and
· The practice should have the potential to be a source of inspiration to others.The value added role of indigenous knowledge systems can be best explained in terms of its virtues (Craig, 2000):· This knowledge source on the common elements of mundane speech and thought, which implies broad taxonomies, simple constructions and powerful organizing metaphors and narratives. Meanings given are therefore easily generalised to many and a variety day-to-day applications;
· Concepts used in community lay knowledge systems are normally broader defined than those in scientific knowledge systems leading to a situation that cause and effects relationships between variables are based upon practical logic and semantic. Application of community lay knowledge should therefore be understood within the framework, specificities and language of specific cultures; and
· In application a general tendency towards mnemonic exists whereby complex process are repackaged in the memory using simple learning devices and developing simple recipes to remember it and to pass it on to next generations. The application of concepts and the resources used to fix a problem are therefore normally within the practical grasp of the user.A need for coalition between knowledge systems existCommunity lay knowledge can complement scientific knowledge systems. However, the effective application of community lay knowledge in technology development requires in the opinion of this author a proper coalition between scientific knowledge systems and community lay knowledge systems in any development approach. In the field of innovation communities can build on and expand on their indigenous knowledge using scientific knowledge systems without forsaking local rituals, overstepping social taboos whilst giving recognition to the fact that community lay knowledge largely drives innovation in marginal and restrictive environments (Hart, 2005). Innovations that are too costly, or labour intensive are unlikely to be adopted by the community (Critchley, 2000).But, according to Oudwater and Martin (2003) local knowledge systems should not be seen as a counterpart to scientific knowledge as it includes cultural, as well as technical knowledge and is interlinked with social and political knowledge and skills. As such these knowledge systems do indeed interact with the outside world, change over time and are thus not static systems. Local knowledge systems is however particular in terms of domain and types of knowledge. Probably, the biggest advantage is that community knowledge systems are known and installed in the daily activities of people living in a specific region (Krasilnikov and Tabor, 2003). Community knowledge can therefore be considered a highly valued knowledge resource from which scientists can extract “best elements” to combine with conventional science.To extract best elements from and apply community lay knowledge one needs to incorporate at least the following (Malhotra, 2003):· Determine who the rightful owners are of the conducted practices in order to ensure that their intellectual property rights are respected and secured;
· Understand the context in which the indigenous knowledge is applied.
· Realise the impact that these indigenous knowledge technologies have on the local community.
· Comprehend the indigenous knowledge strength that exists in a community to ensure the sustainability of technologies in the community and the effective transfer of that knowledge to future generations.ConclusionIndependent from one another neither community lay knowledge, nor scientific knowledge represents a comprehensive or complete body of knowledge as each reflect different epistemologies created within different environments and using different points of departure. However, utilized in coalition they can provide further impetus to understanding and finding innovative solutions for practical problems experienced.BibliographyAnsari, W.E., Philips, C.J. and Zwi, A.B. 2002. Narrowing the gap between academic professional wisdom and community lay knowledge: perceptions from partnerships. Public Health. 116:151-159.
Boven, K. and Morohashi, J. 2002. Best practices using indigenous knowledge. The Hague: Nuffic.
Craig, D. 2000. Practical logics: The shapes and lessons of popular medical knowledge and practice – Examples from Vietnam and Indigenous Australia. Social Science & Medicine. 51: 703-711.
Critchley, W.R.S. 2000. Inquiry, Initiative and Invetiveness: Farmer Innovators in East Africa. Phys.Chem.Earth (B). 25(3):285-288.
Hart, T. 2005. Returning to African tradition the way forward for small farmers? HSRC Review. 3(2):10-11.
Krassilnikov, P.V. and Tabor, J.A. 2003. Perspectives on utilitarian ethnopedology. Geoderma. 111:197-215.
Malhotra, Y. 2003. Measuring knowledge assets of a nation: Knowledge systems for development. 4-5 September. Ad hoc Group of Experts Meeting on Knowledge Systems for Development. New York City. New York.
Oudwater, N. and Martin, A. 2003. Methods and issues in exploring local knowledge of soils. Geoderma. 111:387-401.
Warren E. Buffett offers the following advice on the qualities of a successful investor. Buffett essentially suggests that a successful investor does not need an extraordinarily high IQ, exceptional business acumen, or inside information. To enjoy a lifetime of successful investing, you need a solid decision-making framework and the ability to maintain your emotions.A successful investment strategy requires a thoughtful plan. Developing a plan is not difficult, but staying with it during times of uncertainty and events that seem to counter you plan’s strategy is often difficult. This tutorial discusses the necessity of establishing a trading plan, what investment options best suit your needs, and the challenges you could encounter if you don’t have a plan.The benefits of developing a trading planYou can establish optimal circumstances for experiencing solid investment growth if you stick to your plan despite opposing popular opinion, current trends, or analysts’ forecasts. Develop your investment plan and focus on your long-term goals and objectives.Maintain focus on your planAll financial markets can be erratic. It has experienced significant fluctuations in business cycles, inflation, and interest rates, along with economical recessions throughout the past century. The 1990s experienced a surge of growth due to the bull market pushing the Dow Jones industrial average (DIJA) up 300 percent. This economic growth was accompanied by low interest rates and inflation. During this time, an extraordinary number of Internet-based technology firms were created due to the increased popularity of online commerce and other computer-reliant businesses. This growth was rapid and a downturn occurred just as fast. Between 2000 and 2002, the DIJA dropped 38 percent, triggering a massive sell-off of technology stocks which kept indexes in a depressed state well into the middle of 2001. Large-scale corporate accounting scandals contributed to the downturn. Then in the fall of 2001, the United States suffered a catastrophic terrorist attack that sent the nation into a high level of uncertainty and further weakened the strength of the market.These are the kinds of events that can tax your emotions in terms of your investment strategies. It’s times like these that it is imperative that you have a plan and stick to it. This is when you establish a long-term focus on your objectives. Toward the end of 2002 through 2005, the DJIA rose 44 percent. Investors who let their emotions govern their trading strategies and sold off all their positions missed out on this upturn.The three deadly sins and how to avoid themThe three emotions that accompany trading are fear, hope, and greed. When prices plunge, fear compels you to sell low without reviewing your position. Under these circumstances, you should revisit the original reasons for your investments and determine if they have changed. For example, you might focus on the short term and immediately sell when the price drops below its intrinsic value. In this case, you could miss out if the price recovers.An investment strategy that is based on hope might compel you to buy certain stocks based on the hope that a company’s future performance will reflect on their past performance. This is what occurred during the surge of the Internet-based, dot-com companies during the late 1990s. This is where you need to devote your research into a company’s fundamentals and less on their past performance when determining the worth of their stock. Investing primarily on hope could have you ending up with an overvalued stock with more risk of a loss than a gain.The greed emotion can distort your rationale for certain investments. It can compel you to hold onto a position for too long. If your plan is to hold out a little longer to gain a few percentage points, your position could backfire and result in a loss. Again, in the late 1990s, investors were enjoying double-digit gains on their Internet-company stocks. Instead of scaling back on their investments, many individuals held onto their positions with the hope that the prices would keep going up. Even when the prices were beginning to drop, investors held out hoping that their stocks would rally. Unfortunately, the rally never happened and investors experienced substantial losses.An effective investment plan requires that you properly manage the three deadly sins of investing.The key components of an investment planDetermine your investment objectivesThe first component in your investment plan is to determine your investment objectives. The three main categories involved in your objectives are income, growth, and safety.If your plan is to establish a steady income stream, your objective focuses on the income category. Investors in this category tend to be low-risk and don’t require capital appreciation. They use their investments as an income source.If your focus is on increasing your portfolio’s value over the long term, your objective is growth-based. In contrast to the income category, investors strive for capital appreciation. Investors in this category tend to be younger and have a longer investment time frame. If this is your preferred category, consider your age, investment expectations, and tolerance to risk.The final category is safety. Investors who prefer to prevent loss of their principle investment. They want to maintain the current value of their portfolio and avoid risks that are common with stocks and other less secure investments.Risk toleranceWhile the main reason for growing your portfolio is to increase your wealth, you need to consider how much risk you are willing to take. If you struggle with the market’s volatility, your strategy should focus more on the safety or income categories. If you are more resilient to a fluctuating market and can accept some losses, you might favor the growth category. This category has the potential for higher gains. Nevertheless, you need to be honest with yourself and the level of risk you are willing to take as you set up your investment plan.Asset AllocationAs discussed in the previous sections, part of your investment plan is to determine your risk tolerance and investment objectives. After you establish these components, you can begin to determine how you will allocate the assets in your portfolio and how they will match your goals and risk tolerance. For example, if you are interested in pursuing a growth-oriented category, you could allocate 60 percent in stocks, 15 percent in cash equivalents, and 25 percent in bonds.Make sure your asset allocation reinforces your objectives and risk tolerance. If your focus is on safety, your objectives need to include safe, fixed-income assets such as money market securities, high-quality corporate securities (with high debt ratings), and government bonds.If your strategy focuses on an income category, you should focus on fixed-income strategies. Your investments might include bonds with lower ratings that provide higher yields and dividend-paying stocks.If your focus is on the growth category, your portfolio should focus on common stock, mutual funds, or exchange-traded funds (ETF). With this category, you need to vigilant in managing your portfolio by regularly reviewing your objectives and adjusting them according to your risk tolerance and objectives.Effective asset allocation helps you establish a guideline for properly diversification of your portfolio. This enables you to work toward your objectives and manage a comfortable amount of risk.Investment choicesYour trading strategy includes deciding what types of investments to buy and how you will allocate your assets.GrowthIf your strategy is based on growth, you might consider mutual funds or ETFs that have high market-performance potential.Wealth protection/income generationIf you choose to pursue a wealth protection method, you might choose government bonds or professionally-managed bond funds.Choosing your own stocksIf you prefer to select your own stocks, establish some rules for how you will enter and exit your positions. You objectives and investment strategies will determine these rules. Whatever approach you use, one trading rule you should establish is to use stop-loss orders as a form of protection against downward price movements. For example, if your investment drops 60 percent, it will need to increase 110 percent in order to break even. You choose the price that you will set the order, but a good rule to follow is to set a stop-loss order at 10 percent below the purchase price for long-term investments and a stop-loss order at 3-to-5 percent for short term trades.Your strategy might also include investing in professionally-managed products such as mutual funds. These give you access to professional money managers. If you hope to use mutual funds to increase the value of your portfolio, choose growth funds that focus on capital appreciation. If your intent is to pursue an income-oriented approach, choose income-generating avenues such as dividend-paying stocks or bond funds. Make sure your allocation and risk structure align with your diversification and risk tolerance.Index funds and ETFsIndex funds and ETFs are passively-managed products that have low fees and tax efficiencies (lower than actively-managed funds). These investments could be a good way to manage your asset allocation plan because they are low-cost and well diversified. Essentially, they are baskets of stocks that represent an index, a sector, or a country.SummaryThe most important component in reaching your investment goals is your plan. It helps you establish investment guidelines and a level of protection against loss. It’s important that you develop a plan based on an honest assessment of your investment style, level of risk tolerance, and objectives. You also must avoid letting your emotions influence your investment decisions even during the more discouraging times.
If you are still uncertain about your ability to effectively develop and follow a plan, consider employing the services of an investment advisor. This person’s expertise can help you adhere to a solid plan to meet your investment objectives.
IntroductionThe concept of instituting marketing principles to non-profit institutions such as library and information Services is no longer a controversy. Organisations operate in an environment of change. Today we live in a global market for many goods and services in which technology, purchasing power and many factors change on a regular basis. One of the key functions of marketing is to find out how these changes affect clientele’s wants and needs and to develop organisational strategies and plans that will ensure that the library meets these challenges (Dransfield and Needham, 1995). It is therefore not surprising that public librarians are joining the marketing bandwagon. This article explores the marketing activities in the operations of the Sierra Leone Public Library services.Public LibrariesA Public Library is funded wholly and partly from public funds and the use of which is not restricted to any class persons in the community but freely available to all. It is a major agency of enlightenment for adults, providing for children the recorded experiences of others which will help them grow into adults.Usherhood (1981) defined Public Library as an organization established, supported and funded by the community, either through local, regional or national government or through some form of or other community organization. It provides access to knowledge, information and works of imagination through a range of resources and services and equally available to members of the public community regardless of race, nationality, economic and employment status and educational attainment.The Sierra Leone Library Board (SLLB)The Sierra Leone Library Board (SLLB) was established by Ordinance in June, 1959. The setting up of the Board was envisaged in the Government’s White Paper on Educational Development in 1958 and its functions outlined therein as follows:• To provide a national/public library Service;
• To support and reinforce programmes of adult and fundamental education;
• To provide effective services for children and young adults including requisite services to schools;
• To provide much needed information and references services;
• To provide where needed adequate services for special groups, that is women and girls, language groups.The Central Library is designed to give public services to Freetown and also to function as headquarter of the National/Public Library services and to provide accommodation for a growing collection of book and non-book materials in the country. It does all technical processing of stock for the Regional and Branch Libraries and has an Adult Lending Reference and a Children’s department.Libraries are charged with responsibility to provide information service to support educational, recreation and personal endeavours of the members of their respective communities and the Sierra Leone Library Board is not an exception to that. The following services are provided at the Sierra Leone Library Board to Clientele:Children ServicesThe Sierra Leone Library Board provides information services to children by the provision of books and other materials for children which are often housed in a special section known as the Children’s Library. A special service for children known as child orientated educational programme specially designed for younger library users is included in the children’s library services. They also provide services to children through storytelling, drama/play and reading aloud.Book Borrowing and Lending ServiceThe main task of Sierra Leone Library Board is to provide the public with access to books and periodicals. The Sierra Leone Library Board typically offers access to a variety of books which are available for borrowing by anyone with the appropriate library card.Current Awareness ServiceAt the Sierra Leone Library Board, current awareness service is aimed at bringing to the notice of potential users, newly available documents and information services. This is done by collating information and producing new secondary sources, circulating current periodicals or other documents acquired and producing and distributing one or more forms of bulletins.Selective Dissemination of InformationA more personal information service is being run at the Sierra Leone Library Board in which the library constantly notifies library users about particular information/materials matching them in a profile of the information needs and research pre-occupation of their clientele. This is done by either bringing references to relevant items to the notice of their clients and by obtaining copies and then supply the documents themselves to library users.Outreach ServicesThe Sierra Leone Library Board provides outreach information services which is committed to developing library outreach programmes for non-users, the undeserved, and people with special needs in the communities in restricted areas.Computer and Internet ServicesIn an attempt to bridge the digital divide, information resources and government services are being provided online by the Sierra Leone Library Board. This is done by providing access to the Internet and public computers for users who otherwise would not be able to connect to these services.Library MarketingMarketing is often viewed as a set of strategies and techniques that belongs to administrators outside of librarianship. But, librarians are also involved in the marketing process. The essence of marketing involves finding out users needs and want, then setting out to meet these needs.Marketing according to Weingand (1995) “can be viewed as a process of exchange and a way to foster partnership between the library and its community” (p.296). In order to maintain the relationship between the public library and the community, marketing strategies have to be employed as effective tool.Marketing in the public library means more than simply promotion or selling. It is more concerned about user needs. Marketing the Public Library is a social and managerial process by which products and services as well as values are exchanged in order to fulfill individuals or group needs. Marketing refers to those instruments through which information, both raw and processed, are transmitted to its members. Promotion or campaigning is but two activities in the broader exercise of marketingPlanning Library Marketing ProgrammesThe continued existence of libraries, if not their survivals, may well depend upon the use of marketing and planning strategies, communicated through effective public relations, to significantly alter the perceived role and position of the library in society.In a real sense, Public Relation is the promotion component of a full marketing plan of library programmes. It can be seen as the communicated module which serves the promotion function; conversely, it may be easily depicted as a philosophical relationship between library and community which serves as a guiding light for promotion activities.Both communication and research skills serve well in the marketing planning process of which Public Relations is an important component. Specific skills and knowledge are also needed in marketing planning programs for libraries. It goes without saying that both ongoing marketing planning and programmes, and in particular, how the needs of different groups of users differ from each other. Library and information services are complex entities, as are the human users and potential users of these services.Planning, promotion and campaigning are but all activities in the boarder exercise of marketing. User studies therefore, have a very wide range of uses in relation to the planning of library marketing programmes of a service. They contribute in the planning, promotion and development of library services. In their contribution they help in the understanding of different user group behaviour and their needs, and can assist in effective campaigning and planning process.Three steps to planning library marketing programmes are:• Knowing what your beliefs are and therefore what you want to achieve;
• Communicating these beliefs as practical objectives to the people with whom you work, in order that these objectives can be fulfilled; and
• Creating a vehicle which allows this to happen. This can only be achieved by defining the basic components and through organization.Methods of marketing in Sierra Leone Library BoardBook Displays and ExhibitionsDisplays and exhibitions are widely used in most public libraries as a marketing strategy to sell their products or items. The SLLB displays jackets of new books which are not yet included in the lending department for easy access by users and to increase usage. It is also a means of drawing the attention of users and non-users to particular aspects of library resources and services.Printed materials and PublicationsIn order to make a very good image of the public library and for public librarians to establish better communication between the library and users, publicity programmes are put in place by the management of the Sierra Leone Library Board through news release. The management also considers annual reports and newspapers as basic publicity techniques. Publications such as bibliographies, guides and brochures are used by the library to communicate with the wider public.Public Relations OfficePublic relations according to Usherhood (1981) is concerned with gaining of public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution. It is a process that furthers mental understanding and cooperation between a government; or any organisation and its various publics. The Sierra Leone Library Board has a Public Relations Office charged with the responsibility to enhance a smooth system of communication.User Education/Readers Advisory ServiceThis could be described as training a group of users in the effective use of the library and its resources. It is used to stimulate the users to make greater use of the library and introduces library staff to clientele who might be reluctant to seek their assistance. This is the principal means through which library staff can learn about readers’ needs, opinions and habits. Good communication with readers enables staff to inform and influence readers.The MediaThese involve printed and audio-visual forms of communication and any necessary equipment to render them usable. The Press, radio and television are important means of publicising information service, since they offer potential of reaching many people from all walks of life. The media are cultivated so that messages are distributed with regularity. Publicity mechanism such as news releases, special events and brochures can also be employed.The Social Media Groups (SMG)The Sierra Leone Library Board makes use of the Social media groups such as ‘Facebook’ and ‘Watsapp’ as an effective way for publicity in order to put their messages across to users of their services.Challenges of Marketing Library and Information Services at the SLLBA lot of challenges have militated against the effective planning and implementation of library marketing programs at SLLB. The following are some of the challenges:• Inadequate Staff: Although staff numbers have been maintained, the ratio of professional staff is very low. The library is manned mostly by paraprofessionals who mostly lack the skills to plan and implement marketing programmes.• Finance: The library depends heavily on government subsidy. The government has no specific or substantial funds for the running of the library thus the library administration has to foot most of the bills that have to do with marketing. The irregular flow of funds has served as a barrier to the progress of marketing library and information services at the SLLB.• Lack of standard printed materials and publications: The SLLB lacks most standard printed materials and publications due to poor planning of marketing programmes. This negligence has made the library handicapped of public relations tools in the form of printed materials and publications such as newsletters, questionnaires, diaries and calendars.• Displays are improper and exhibitions seem almost absent: The library depends mostly on donations and most of the books are acquired without jackets. Therefore displaying book jackets in inconsistent. In fact exhibition programmes are yet to survive as they are only recently introduced. The library lacks relevant display and exhibition materials to mount these activities.• Inability to organize frequent Radio Programs: The SLLB lacks media communication facilities. The library cannot frequently organise radio programmes on its own because of lack of funds. The absence of radio programmes stands out as an acute problem to the progress of marketing programs in the library.Conclusively, marketing is the instrument that libraries use to transform their aims and objectives into operational plans of action. In most developing countries’ public libraries such as the SLLB, marketing strategies cannot operate properly due to the existence of bottlenecks in planning programmes. Good marketing programmes actualise the plans and measures necessary for the achievement of goals and objectives.
Parkinsons disease is a comparatively common condition of the nervous system which is as a result of problems with the nerve cells in the part of the brain which generates dopamine. This is a chemical substance that is needed for the smooth management of muscles and motion, so the symptoms of the disorder is a result of a reduction of that chemical. Parkinson’s disease mostly impacts individuals aged over 65, but it can and does come on at younger ages with 5-10% developing before the age of forty.
The chief clinical features of Parkinson’s disease are a tremor or shaking, that will commences in one arm or hand; there is often a muscle rigidity or stiffness along with a slowness of motion; the stance gets more stooped; additionally, there are equilibrium concerns. Parkinson’s can also cause greater pain and result in depression symptoms and create problems with memory and sleep. There isn’t any specific test for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s. The identification is usually made primarily based on the history of the symptoms, a physical along with neural evaluation. Other reasons for the signs and symptoms also need to be eliminated. There are imaging assessments, such as a CAT scan or MRI, that can be used to eliminate other issues. From time to time a dopamine transporter diagnostic might also be utilized.
The actual cause of Parkinson’s isn’t known. It does appear to have both genetic and environmental elements with it plus some specialists think that a virus may induce Parkinson’s as well. Decreased amounts of dopamine and also norepinephrine, a substance which in turn is responsible for the dopamine, have already been found in those with Parkinson’s, but it is not yet determined what is causing this. Unusual proteins which are named Lewy bodies have been located in the brains of those who have Parkinson’s; nevertheless, experts don’t know what role they may play in the development of Parkinson’s. While the specific cause just isn’t known, studies have identified risk factors that establish groups of people who are more prone to develop the condition. Men are more than one and a half times more prone to get Parkinson’s as compared to women. Caucasians are much more prone to get the condition as compared to African Americans or Asians. Those who have close members of the family who have Parkinson’s disease are more likely to develop it, implying the inherited contribution. A number of toxins could raise the potential for the problem, implying a role of the environment. People who experience difficulties with brain injuries can be more likely to go on and have Parkinson’s disease.
There is no identified remedy for Parkinson’s disease. That will not imply that the signs and symptoms can’t be handled. The main method is to use medicines to raise or replacement for the dopamine. Balanced and healthy diet together with frequent exercise is crucial. There may be changes made to the surroundings at home and work to keep the individual involved as well as active. There are also some options sometimes for brain surgical treatment which can be used to relieve some of the motor symptoms. A diverse team of different health professionals are often involved.